Persian and Kurdish belong to the Indo-European language family. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict particularly between Sunnis and Shiites. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably Britain and France by the end of the 1960s. The term was created by British military strategists in the 19th century, and definitions of the Middle East vary; it is not simply a geographical term, but also a political one, connoting that it separates Europe ("the West") from the Far East. How does Carter plan to promote his goals for the Middle East? The Persian equivalent for Middle East is خاورمیانه (Khāvar-e miyāneh), the Hebrew is המזרח התיכון (hamizrach hatikhon) and the Turkish is Orta Doğu. Trump has used his relationship with Middle Eastern dictators to secure the release of some Americans abroad who had languished in the region’s … It's not even an agreed-upon term by the countries that constitute it. To protect the security of both the Soviet Union and the United States. The economy of the Middle East is very diverse, with national economies ranging from hydrocarbon-exporting rentiers to centralized socialist economies and free-market economies. A fair proportion of those migrating from Arab nations are from ethnic and religious minorities facing racial and or religious persecution and are not necessarily ethnic Arabs, Iranians or Turks. This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 22:19. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east, Syria and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia. One of the deserts in the Middle East is the An Nafud Desert in Saudi Arabia which is known for its gigantic dunes. There are also important minority religions like the Baháʼí Faith, Yarsanism, Yazidism, Zoroastrianism, Mandaeism, Druze, and Shabakism, and in ancient times the region was home to Mesopotamian religions, Canaanite religions, Manichaeism, Mithraism and various monotheist gnostic sects. The countries of the South Caucasus—Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia—are occasionally included in definitions of the Middle East. The earliest civilizations like Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia originated from the Nile Valley and the Fertile Crescent regions. French is taught and used in many government facilities and media in Lebanon, and is taught in some primary and secondary schools of Egypt and Syria. There is also an Oasis Berber-speaking community in Egypt where the language is also known as Siwa. The Middle East is a geographical and cultural region located primarily in western Asia, but also in parts of northern Africa and southeastern Europe. Before the fall of the Soviet Union, US strategy focused, correctly, on historical power centers on the outer rim of the Levant and Mesopotamia. English is one of the official languages of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. These were followed by the Hittite, Greek, Hurrian and Urartian civilisations of Asia Minor; Elam, Persia and Median civilizations in Iran, as well as the civilizations of the Levant (such as Ebla, Mari, Nagar, Ugarit, Canaan, Aramea, Mitanni, Phoenicia and Israel) and the Arabian Peninsula (Magan, Sheba, Ubar). The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. The World Bank: World Economic Indicators Database. Another Turkic language, Azerbaijani, is spoken by Azerbaijanis in Iran. The Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous. The government of any particular country, no matter what "continent" they live on determines the quality of life for the people. The search for agricultural lands by agriculturalists, and pastoral lands by herdsmen meant different migrations took place within the region and shaped its ethnic and demographic makeup. Arabic, with all its dialects, are the most widely spoken languages in the Middle East, with Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. Middle East Continent Briefs: The Middle East includes the states of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel although its geographical definition is not really well defined. Non-Arab Middle Eastern countries such as Turkey, Israel and Iran are also subject to important migration dynamics. The total estimated population of the EMEA region is between 2.1 and 2.2 billion people occupying the land from the most northern parts of Europe all the way to the southern tip of Africa. [38] Russian today is a popular unofficial language in use in Israel; news, radio and sign boards can be found in Russian around the country after Hebrew and Arabic. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, India, and the Persian Gulf. Other mountain ranges found on the border between Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea includes the Hejaz and Asir mountains. Around one third of Africa is located in the Southern Hemisphere. The Middle East is generally a hot area with numerous main rivers which supply water to various agricultural regions like the Fertile Crescent, Tigris and Euphrates, and the Nile Delta. Hebrew is one of the two official languages of Israel, the other being Arabic. [10][11] He labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, and said that after Egypt's Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India. The term has fallen into disuse in American English and has been replaced by the terms Middle East, which includes Egypt, and Western Asia, which includes the South Caucasus. The largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East is found in Israel, where as of 1995[update] Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population. Other Western Iranic languages spoken in the region include Achomi, Daylami, Kurdish dialects, Semmani, Lurish, amongst many others. The five top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Kurdish, and Hebrew. Africa makes up about 20% of the world’s total land area. The most populous countries in the region are Egypt, Iran, and Turkey, while Saudi Arabia is the largest Middle Eastern country by area. The Middle East Region. Armenian and Greek speakers are also to be found in the region. What Is The Difference Between Near East and Middle East? For the period between the 1970s and 1990s, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in particular provided a rich source of employment for workers from Egypt, Yemen and the countries of the Levant, while Europe had attracted young workers from North African countries due both to proximity and the legacy of colonial ties between France and the majority of North African states. [22] Even though the term originated in the West, apart from Arabic, other languages of countries of the Middle East also use a translation of it. During the twentieth century, the region’s vast crude oil stock helped boost the economy of these nations. Africa, the second largest continent, covering about one-fifth of the total land surface of Earth. [6] However, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902[7] to "designate the area between Arabia and India". a region expected to be severely negatively impacted by it. Let’s go through the story of continents and how countries are divided along geographical and political borders. [34][35] It is also commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes, in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Iran, Kurdistan, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp. With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" largely fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. [15], Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East", while the "Far East" centered on China,[16] and the Middle East then meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East. The land in between these power centers – Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan – was the arena for proxy war and It's not a political or economic alliance like the European Union. Africa’s total land area is approximately 11,724,000 square miles (30,365,000 square km), and the continent measures about 5,000 miles (8,000 km) from north to south and about 4,600 miles (7,400 km) from east … It is on three continents with Asia being the primary. [42] Turkey ($1,028,897), Iran ($839,438) and Saudi Arabia ($589,531) had the largest economies in terms of GDP-PPP. The region known as the Middle East has a varied geography that includes deserts, oceans, mountains, and seas. With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, in part because of the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East. Parts of Africa (primarily Egypt and Sudan) are sometimes considered part of the Middle East as well. The Caucasus Mountains is located between the Caspian and the Black Seas. Throughout its history the Middle East has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area. Middle East, the lands around the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, encompassing at least the Arabian Peninsula and, by some definitions, Iran, North Africa, and sometimes beyond. The answer to this question can either be opinionated with all of Turkey belonging to Europe or the Middle East, but then there’s the more accepted route by declaring Turkey a transcontinental country. [41] Regarding nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745). Mideast is also acceptable, but Middle East is preferred. Majority of the nations bordering the Persian Gulf have vast crude oil reserves. Some times, political and … However, some languages do have "Middle East" equivalents, such as the French Moyen-Orient, Swedish Mellanöstern, Spanish Oriente Medio or Medio Oriente, and the Italian Medio Oriente. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. GRAPHIC: Asia’s crude oil imports from the Middle East vs the. From the 16th century onward, the Middle East came to be dominated, once again, by two main powers: the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid dynasty. Ismael, Jacqueline S., Tareq Y. Ismael, and Glenn Perry. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia (e.g. Overall, as of 2007[update], according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth. The Middle East is widely and most famously known as the Cradle of civilization. It typically refers to southwest Asia, particularly Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, … The Near East was first largely unified under the Neo Assyrian Empire, then the Achaemenid Empire followed later by the Macedonian Empire and after this to some degree by the Iranian empires (namely the Parthian and Sassanid Empires), the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire. [13], Mahan's article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. [citation needed]. China, Japan, Korea, etc.). Besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. "Migration has always provided an important vent for labor market pressures in the Middle East. The five major bodies of water that surround the region are the Caspian Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Turkestan. Circassian is also spoken by the diaspora in the region and by almost all Circassians in Israel who speak Hebrew and English as well. The biggest Middle Eastern state by land area in Saudi Arabia (830,000 sq miles) followed by Iran (636,372 sq miles) and then Egypt (390,120 sq miles). It extends for about 1,000 miles from the Iran Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea and 2,000 miles from the Arabian Sea to the Black Sea. It is a non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic language. The region covers part of North Africa, but is situated mainly in Southwest Asia. [43] When it comes to per capita (PPP)-based income, the highest-ranking countries are Qatar ($86,008), Kuwait ($39,915), the UAE ($38,894), Bahrain ($34,662) and Cyprus ($29,853). The Middle East has numerous mountain ranges with some of the tallest peaks being over 18,000 ft above sea level. Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East, but other faiths that originated there, such as Judaism and Christianity, are also well represented. [55] If greenhouse gas emissions are not significantly reduced, part of the MENA region risks becoming uninhabitable before the year 2100. The Middle East is a region in western Asia and north-eastern Africa. "[16] In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, and defined the region as including only Egypt, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar.[19]. Additionally, the Mongols would come to dominate the region, the Kingdom of Armenia would incorporate parts of the region to their domain, the Seljuks would rule the region and spread Turko-Persian culture, and the Franks would found the Crusader states that would stand for roughly two centuries. [29] The Middle East lies at the juncture of Eurasia and Africa and of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. Christians represent 40.5% of Lebanon, where the Lebanese president, half of the cabinet, and half of the parliament follow one of the various Lebanese Christian rites. Thus, the Romans stationed up to five or six of their legions in the region for the sole purpose of defending it from Sassanid and Bedouin raids and invasions. [57][58][59], region that encompasses Western Asia and Egypt, This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the, Territories and regions usually considered within the Middle East. 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